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Effectiveness of Anti-Corruption Agencies in Southern Africa: Angola, Botswana, DRC, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Zambia and Zimbabwe

Published Date: 13/04/2017

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With reportedly over USD100 billion lost annually through graft and illicit practices, combatting corruption in Africa has been challenging. However, laws and policies at the continental, regional and national levels have been promulgated and enacted by African leaders. These initiatives have included the establishment of anti-corruption agencies mandated to tackle graft at national level, as well as coordinate bodies at regional and continental levels to ensure the harmonisation of normative standards and the adoption of best practices in the fight against corruption.

Yet, given the disparity between the apparent impunity enjoyed by public servants and the anti-corruption rhetoric of governments in the region, the effectiveness of these agencies is viewed with scepticism. This continent-wide study of anti-corruption agencies aims to gauge their relevance and effectiveness by assessing their independence, mandate, available resources, national ownership, capacities and strategic positioning.

These surveys include evidence-based recommendations calling for stronger, more relevant and effective institutions that are directly aligned to regional and continental anti-corruption frameworks, such as the African Union Convention on Preventing and Combatting Corruption (AUCPCC), which the ten countries in this current report – Angola, Botswana, DRC, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Zambia and Zimbabwe – have all ratified.



Acknowledgements_____________________________________________ vii

1. General overview__________________________________________________1

2. Angola

Dr Helena Prata_____________________________________________________21

3. Botswana

Dr Gape I Kaboyakgosi_______________________________________________42

4. Democratic Republic of Congo

Prof. Andre Mbata Mangu____________________________________________72

5. Lesotho

Dr Motlamelle Anthony Kapa_ _______________________________________104

6. Malawi

Dr Henry Chingaipe_________________________________________________132

7. Mozambique_______________________________________________________167

8. Namibia

Prof. Lesley Blaauw_________________________________________________191

9. South Africa

Dr Ralph Mathekga_________________________________________________221

10. Swaziland

Ms Maxine Langwenya______________________________________________262

11. Zambia

Mr Goodwell Lungu________________________________________________284

12. Zimbabwe

Ms Teresa Mugadza_ _______________________________________________330


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