This book is the second in a series of books from the LOITSASA (Language of Instruction in Tanzania and South Africa) project and reflects the work done in the second year of the project. LOITSASA is a NUFU-funded (Norwegian University Fund) project which began in January 2002 and continued till the end of 2006. It is, what in donor circles is known as a ‘South-South-North’ cooperation project which in this case, involves research cooperation between South Africa, Tanzania and Norway. The first book, entitled Language of instruction in Tanzania and South Africa (LOITSASA), focused on the current language in education situation in two countries by providing a description and analysis of existing language policies and practices. This book has as its main focus a discussion of research projects in the two countries focusing on the language of instruction issue. All the chapters in the book were presented at the second LOITSASA Workshop held at the University of the Western Cape in April 2003.